Ст.н.с. д-р Красимира Кънева
Институт по аграрна икономика София
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Institute of Agricultural Economics Sofia
In this article, there is reviewed the influence of direct payments per unit of land over the reproduction of agricultural farms. The review studies a non-representative sample, included in the Farmer accountancy data network of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. The year 2003 is taken as a basic year.
The enquiry is performed according to two scenarios. Under the first scenario, the reproduction opportunities are determined according to the net income during the basic year (2003) and after receiving the direct payments per unit of land. The total costs for 2003 are accepted as a reproduction threshold. In the case of family farms the total costs do not include the labor remuneration due to the owner and his family's members who work in the cooperative. In order to account for this cost, the assets for paying the family members' labor are substracted from the net income while the solution is performed in three versions: at a remuneration equal to the actual payment at family farms, at remuneration equal to the average salary for agriculture and at a labor payment equal to the one given in cooperatives.
For the cooperatives, the reproduction threshold is equal to total costs since the entire labor force is subject to remuneration. There are also developed three versions of remuneration in order to perform a comparison refering to how net income would change if labor remuneration is equal to the one in family farms or to the average for agriculture.
The results from the enquiry according to this scenario show significant differences regarding labor remuneration between workers in cooperatives and hired workers in family farms. This is explained by the use of qualified, mainly mechanized labor in cooperatives as compared to low qualified, manual labor in family farms, where remuneration is near to the minimum wage and external labor force is not socially insured.
In the second scenario, the reproduction threshold changes due to the decreased of total costs which are determined through the solution of an optimizational model. (Analysis embodying data). There is used a criteria (the so-called “best producer”) which is constructed of factual data from producers in the sample, e.g. the criteria is based not on theoretical but on real values. The attained value shows by how much the costs should be decreased in order to attain a Gross Product equal to the attained during the basic period. As a result of costs' decrease, the net income increases before and after adding subsidies.
The results of the enquiry according to the first scenario show that during the basic period the family farms and farming companies which are in good economic condition are those which grow field crops. In good state are also the family farms which produce vegetables, the cooperatives with perennial plants and with mixed plant growing. Endangered with bankruptcy are the farms with rhuminating animals in all legal forms as well as the vegetable producing cooperatives. The cooperatives with field crops which mainly produce grain and sunflower have significantly lower incomes than family farms and farming companies and even their reproduction is endangered. Since they have the vastest land area, the expected subsidies per land unit will guarantee their future functioning. Family farms and farming companies with field crops are profitable due to the direct payments since they will guarantee not only the very reproduction but also the increase of incomes and accordingly consumption. Such is also the trend regarding mixed plant growing cooperatives. The cooperatives with perrenial plants will strengthen their financial condition and the vegetable producers will preserve their state since the subsidies will not be of special importance for them. In the least favored conditions will be the animal breeding farms especially those with rhuminating animals since they have little land and will not receive considerable subsidies and in view of the existing macro environment a considerable part of them function with losses.
The results from the enquiry according to the second scenario show that all legal institutions (family farms, cooperatives and farming companies) have opportunities to decrease their costs as a result of which the net income would increase. Such opportunities, however do not exist farms with rhuminating animals since all of them work at a minimum net income or loss and in the sample there are not such much better farms which could form a higher criteria. The mixed plant growing cooperatives also do not have opportunities for decreasing their costs, but differing from the rhuminating animal farms, they work efficiently while concerning the enquired farms, there are no significant deviations in the degree of resource utilization.
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Статията е постъпила в редакцията на 17.10. 2006 г.