Ст.н.с. д-р Елена Видинова
Институт по мелиорации и механизация - София
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Institute of Melioration and Mechanization - Sofia
The efficiency of agricultural production is influenced by many determinants. One of them refers to the quantity of machines of the corresponding type, the rationality of the exploitation organization and their technical and economic parameters.
The purpose of this article is to analyze the trend refering to the new production structures and their assurance with agricultural machinery and to present suggestions for improving the processes in this area.
After the liquidation of the former production structures in agriculture there have been shped five groups of agricultural farms according to their legal status pocessing their own agricultural machinery: “farms belonging to physical persons” (78.3%), “cooperatives” (11.0%), “farms belonging to sole traders” (5.3%), 'farming companies” (4.4%) and “partnerships” (1.1%), etc.
The greatest amount of machinery is situated in the “farms belonging to physical persons” e.g. over 50%, followed by the “cooperatives” - about 20.0%, “farms belonging to sole traders” - over 10.0% of all types of agricultural machinery, “farming companies” - about 15% of the specialized machinery such as grain combines, silage combines, adapters at the grain harvesters, planting machines, fertilizer spreaders, plant protection machines and the remaining groups - between 4.0% and 10.0%.The “partnerships” are not yet a very common structure and the machines pertaining to them are between 0.8% and 3.8%.
The availability of self-moving machines and tractors in agricultural farms with differing legal status and of tractors with working machines moves in a great range: tractors 0.29-0.6 number per farm; grain combines per farm 0.02-0.14; silage combines per farm 0.002-0.023. In the famrs of larger land landholding there is assured a greater exploitation of the tractors, accordingly of the their working machines. This specially underlines once again their advantage in assuring rational exploitation of the agricultural machinery.
The used agricultural machines are physically and morally old (over 90%) which causes greater costs of their maintainance in a working condition.
In order to improve the condition of the farm machinery and its availability in the farms, it is necessary to change the approach of its distribution and the organization of its exploitation.
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Статията е постъпила в редакцията на 4.09.2006 г.