Ст. н. с. д-р Виолина Хаджиева
Институт по аграрна икономика - София
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Institute of Agricultural Economics - Sofia
The author's aim is to present in this article an analysis of the opportunities of pigbreeding development during the first years after Bulgaria's accession to the EU while the scheme of uniform payments per unit of land is going to be applied.
The Common Agricultural Policy of direct support is not previewed regarding the branch of pig breeding. Nevertheless, the accession to the EU offers economic advantages as far as the access to the common European market is concerned, as well as abolishment of customs barriers and protection from third countries' competition at the European market. Together with this, the accession is accompanied by specific requirements regarding food safety, product quality, ecology, human attitude towards animals. In this regard, Bulgarian producers could face serious problems in response to these requirements. The strong competition at the European market will have two-sided impacts on the development of this branch of economy. On the one hand, it will push the producers to produce cheaper and of higher quality products and on the second side - the Bulgarian producers could be eliminated from the market by the more competitive western producers.
For the time being, problems of pig breeding concern high per unit costs, the small farms without modern tehcnologies, meat quality, market, low farmgate prices. In terms of number, the pigs in Bulgaria amount to 943 th towards 2005 in 191 th improfessional farms averagly 4.9 pigs per farm and 1526 large farms enhancing a half of the total. There is a great differentiation regarding the land use by the present farms, e.g. 19.17% of the pigs correspond to 1-20 ha used per farm and only 15% of pigs to farms wich have an utilized land area over 10 ha where one could expect eficiency of the direct subsidirial payments per unit of land.
There are sources to improve pig breeding in Bulgaria: the capacity of the forage basis where the present use of 3.8 kilos of fodder correspond to 1 kilo of meat can be brought down to 3.0 kilos of forage per 1 kilo of meat; lowering the amount of fat in pigs' carcasses where the selection is very important; replacing the import which since 2001 has increased three times achieving now 34985 t; lower prices compared to the EU countries assuring a more favorable bargaining positions of the Bulgarian pig breeding branch.
The small farms with inefficient and incompetitive firms would meat negative consequences after Bulgaria's accession to the EU and are to be restructured, enlarged and modernized.
As a whole, it is probable that the developent of the pig breeding branch continues on the basis of the presently acting production status and economic factors and increase the consumption and export of pig meat while lowering the import of pig products and incresing the number of pigs.
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Статията е постъпила в редакцията на 15.08.2006 г.