Ст.н.с. д-р Мария Рисина
Институт по аграрна икономика - София
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Institute of Agricultural Economics - Sofia
In this article there are analyzed: the change of the area and production volumes of fruits and berries; their age structure and physiological condition; the number and the size of the farms related to the total fruit production and distributed according to their legal status on the grounds of the 2003 agricultural census; the economic problems of fruit production; the policy of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in order to prepare the fruit growing for its successful functioning after Bulgaria accedes to the European Union. There are analyzed the main instruments of the Common Agrisultural Policy in fruit growing and the influence which they would exert over the fruit sector. There are shown the perspectives for the development of the agricultural farms according to their legal status depending on two extreme scenarios of Governmnet policy in fruit growing.
The major conclusions which are reached are the following:
- As a result of the destructive reforms, fruit growing is no more a structurally determining branch of agriculture.
- There is a restructuring by species - the production of apples and peaches decreases and the production of plums and cherries increases.
- The problems of the economy of fruit growing do not stem only from the small scale of farms and the worsened age structure of the plantings, but they are also due to causes which are out of fruit growing.
- The provided aid by the “Zemedelie” State Fund and the SAPARD program cannot revive Bulgarian fruit growing. This can be done by a huge in size capital with a motivated investorss interest which does not exist at the moment.
- The expected aid from the CAP of the EU will also not inlfuence fruit growing significantly.
- Of decisive nature for Bulgarian fruit growing is the creation of an economic environment which should provoke the investors' interests. This cannot be done without the interference of the State. Depending on the mission which the State would undertake there are possible two scenarios of fruit growing development. The first one refers to State's non-interference which will confirm the present trend of considerable contraction of fruit growing and satisfying the domestic needs with imports. The second scenario refers to the purposeful creation of a favorable economic environment for the investors in fruit growing. Then there could be expected fruit growing to revive and modernize, without, however expecting that its scale will reach the pre-reform level.
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Статията е постъпила в редакцията на 16.10. 2006 г.