Ст.н.с. д-р Храбрин Башев
Институт по аграрна икономика София
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Institute of Agricultural Economics Sofia
This paper summaries and evaluates the experiences of developed countries and European Union in application of market, private, public and hybrid modes for governing of agrarian and rural sustainability. Analysis of market and private governance structures includes: development and results of organic farming; diversity of private initiatives and agreements (professional code of conduct and standards, farmers and industries initiatives, partnership agreements; various cooperative (e.g. environmental cooperatives) and mixed private-cooperative and cooperative-public forms; and Fairtrade system. Analysis of public forms includes a great variety of public regulations (public standards, norms and restrictions for labor, products, technologies, labels, use of natural resources, anima welfare); tradable permits and quotas for usage of certain resources and permissible pollution; tax instruments (tax preferences, eco-taxes for emissions or products, levies for manure); and modes for direct public support (direct support to prices, direct payments to farms, funding and subsidizing eco and other activities, public contracts, programs for agrarian and rural development). On the bases of advantages and disadvantages of different forms an estimates is made on possibilities for their introduction in Bulgarian conditions.
Key words: agrarian and rural sustainability; market, private, collective, public and hybrid governing modes; experiences of developed and EU countries
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Статията е постъпила в редакцията на 20.07. 2006 г.